Tiwi/Grammar

From LING073
Jump to: navigation, search

We based our grammar documentation on the Traditional Tiwi interpretation from Tiwi Today.

Parts of Speech

Nominals<n>

Tiwi nominals include both nouns and adjectives, the distinction being that nouns refer to persons, animals and things, whereas adjectives refer to qualities or properties.

  • nouns
  • kin nouns
  • numerals <num>
  • adjectives <adj>

Verbals <v>

Tiwi verb structure consists of several grammatical concepts: person, number, gender, tense, aspect, mood, voice, location/direction, time of day, stance, and emphasis.

  • transitive <tv>
  • intransitive <iv>

Other

  • predicatives <pred>
  • locatives <loc>
  • temporals<temp>
  • adverbs<adv>
  • particles
  • interjections <ij>

Alternations

Alternation 1: singular imperative mood

  • wapa<v><iv><imp><s_sg2> ↔ taapa
  • kirimi<v><iv><imp><s_sg2> ↔ takirimi

Alternation 2: non-past verbs

"Nonpast verbs have one of the non-past set of subject forms but are not otherwise marked for tense." [1]

  • wapa<v><iv><nonpast><s_sg3><m> ↔ awapa
  • pangurlimayi<v><iv><nonpast><s_sg1> ↔ ngipangurlimayi
  • wapa<v><iv><nonpast><s_sg1> ↔ ngiwapa

Alternation 3: past verbs

"Past tense verbs are formed by a} selecting one of the past tense set of subject forms and b) inserting the past tense marker rə- wherever the subject form carries no tense meaning. (An exception to this is that rə- is inserted following pu- "they", which has a distinctively past tense meaning.)"[2]

  • wapa<v><iv><past><s_sg3><m> ↔ yiwapa
  • pangurlimayi<v><iv><past><s_sg1> ↔ ngirripangurlimayi
  • kirimi<v><iv><past><s_pl3> ↔ pirikirimi
  • walangarti<v><iv><past><s_sg3><m> ↔ yiwalangarti

"In past tense verbs when third-person singular direct object co-occurs with a third-person singular subject, the subject prefixes are used to express gender of the object, and the gender of the subject is neutralized."[3]

  • pirni <v><tv><past><s_sg3><o_sg3><m> ↔ yipirni

Alternation 4: direct object

  • takirayi<v><tv><nonpast><s_sg3><m><o_pl3> ↔ awuntakirayi
  • pirni<v><tv><past><s_sg3><m><o_sg1> ↔ yiminipirni

Alternation 5: plural nouns -wi suffix

  • ti<n><pl> ↔ tiwi
  • manta<n><pl> ↔ mantawi
  • pulanguma<n><pl> ↔ pulangumawi

Alternation 6: feminine nouns -nga suffix

  • ti<n><f> ↔ tinga
  • manta<n><f> ↔ mantanga

Alternation 7: feminine nouns -ka suffix

  • pulanguma<n><f> ↔ pulangumaka

Alternation 8: emphatic pronouns -ila and -awa suffixes

To make a pronoun emphatic, Tiwi speakers add the suffixes -ila and -awa to the pronoun and sometimes use a combination of both.

  • ngiy<prn><ref><p1><sg> ↔ ngilawa
  • nginj<prn><ref><p2><sg> ↔ nginjila
  • ngarr<prn><m><ref><sg> ↔ ngatawa

Alternation 9: feminine predicatives

  • wurumi<adj><pred><f> ↔ juwurumi
  • porimi<adj><pred><f> ↔ jiporimi
  • kupuranji<adj><pred><f> ↔ jikupuranji

Alternation 10: interrogative pronouns

Interrogative pronouns used for humans e.g. who?

  • kuwa<prn><itg><f> ↔ kuwanga
  • kuwa<prn><itg><m> ↔ kuwani
  • kuwa<prn><itg><pl> ↔ kuwapi

Interrogative pronouns used for things e.g. which? what?

  • kami<prn><itg><m> ↔ kamini
  • kami<prn><itg><f> ↔ kamunga

Alternation 11: masculine predicatives

  • kupuranji<adj><pred><m> ↔ yirikupuranji
  • wurumi<adj><pred><m> ↔ yuwurumi
  • porimi<adj><pred><m> ↔ yiporimi

Alternation 12: feminine adjectives -nga suffix

  • tuniwu<adj><f> ↔ tuniwunga
  • arikula<adj><f> ↔ arikulanga

Alternation 13: feminine adjectives -ka suffix

  • pumpu<adj><f> ↔ pumpuka
  • punkiri<adj><f> ↔ punkirika
  • panimi<adj><f> ↔ panimika
  • pijuwali<adj><f> ↔ pijuwalika

Alternation 14: plural adjectives -wi suffix

  • pumpu<adj><pl> ↔ pumpuwi
  • tuniwu<adj><pl> ↔ tuniwuwi

Alternation 15: masculine nouns -ni suffix

  • ti<n><m> ↔ tini
  • manta<n><m> ↔ mantani
  • pulanguma<n><m> ↔ pulangumani

Alternation 16: masculine adjectives -ni suffix

  • tuniwu<adj><m> ↔ tuniwuni
  • pumpu<adj><m> ↔ pumpuni
  • punkiri<adj><m> ↔ punkirini
  • panimi<adj><m> ↔ panimini
  • pijuwali<adj><m> ↔ pijuwalini
  • arikula<adj><m> ↔ arikulani

Alternation 17: plural adjectives -pi suffix

  • punkiri<adj><pl> ↔ punkiripi
  • pijuwali<adj><pl> ↔ pijuwalipi
  • arikula<adj><pl> ↔ arikulapi

Citations

  1. Osborne, p.41
  2. ibid
  3. Osborne, p.40