I would like to work with Kevin Murphy (User:Kmurphy4). He has a much stronger background in linguistics than I do, which will complement my past work in computer science for this class.
Mapudungun is a language isolate, meaning that is not historically or linguistically related to other languages; some sources indicate that there is some lexical influence from the Quechuan languages and from Spanish. It is natively spoken by the Mapuche people, who live in central Chile and central-western Argentina; approx. 144,000 native speakers in Chile and approx. 8400 in Argentina. Mapudungun was once known as Araucanian, which was a name given to the Mapuche by the Spanish - this name is now considered offensive. There are four main dialect groups: north, central, south-central and south. Within these dialect groups, there are eight dialect subgroups numbered I through VII. There was no system of writing before the Spanish arrived in the late 1500s/early 1600s. Mapudungun is an agglutinative language, meaning that it is composed of sequences of meaningful word elements (called morphemes) each of which belongs to a single grammatical category. Most verb phrases are formed from five or six morphemes. There have been some efforts to revitalize Mapudungun, but it remains the case that fewer than a third of all Mapuche children graduate eight grade, and there are no official language classes on Mapudungun.
- The numbers 1-10 are: 1 kiñe, 2 epu, 3 küla, 4 meli, 5 kechu, 6 kayu, 7 regle, 8 pura, 9 aylla, 10 mari
- ISO language codes are ISO 639-2 (arn) and ISO 639-3 (arn)
- I found this version of the Bible which I believe is written in Mapudungun
Futunan is a Polynesian langauge language spoken on the island Futuna. It is spoken by approx. 3300 on Futuna and 3000 migrant workers in New Caledonia. On the other hand, Futuna-Aniwa is a similar language that is spoken in the Tafea Province of Vanuatu and, as its name suggests, on Futuna and Aniwa. Futuna-Aniwa has fewer native speakers than Futunan (approx. 1500). Futunan is considered to be a dialect of Futuna-Aniwa. The phonology of Futuna-Aniwa is most similar to Polynesian. Pronouns can be subdivided into morphological components. Both languages use the Latin script for writing.
- The ISO language code is ISO 639-3 (fud)
- I found this French-Futunan dictionary that may be useful
Lakota is spoken by the Lokota people of the Sioux tribes. Lakota is also known as Lakhota, Teton or Teton Sioux. Native speakers believe that Lakota is an isolated language, but indeed it is very similar to several other Siouan languages. There are approx. 2000 native speakers in North and South Dakota, and it is considered to represent one of the largest Native American language speech communities in the US. It was first written by missionaries in the mid 1800s. The standard writing conventions for the Lakota people are given in the New Lakota Dictionary and is taught in a number of Native American schools. The orthography is mainly phonemic, meaning that each character represents a distinctive sound.
There were some efforts in the 19th and 20th century to assimilate Native Americans into mainstream US society, which greatly suppressed the native languages of several tribes. Fortunately, the Lakota language survived this suppression.
- ISO 639-3 (lkt)
- There are plenty of resources on the Lakota wikipedia page
- "Mapudungun". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
- "Futunan". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
- "Futuna-Aniwa". Ethnologue, Languages of the World. Retrieved January 24, 2018.
- "Lakota". Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved January 24, 2018.