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External Resources


A grammar of the language published in 2000 by Jessie Little Doe Fermino (or Jessie Little Doe Baird) as an MIT thesis is available online here. Most other resources I have found at this point are the sources used to develop this grammar. It is under copyright.

Another thesis, by Nitana Hicks, lists morphemes used in Wôpanâak verbs along with rules for verb construction.

Additionally, Volume 2 of Native Writings in Massachusett contains a "Grammatical Sketch" based on several centuries-older grammars.


The Natick Dictionary, published in 1903, appears to be a dictionary of at least one form of the language available online here. It is a dictionary between English and the Natick dialect of Wôpanâak.


The 1988 book Native Writings In Massachusett (available from McCabe and online), by Ives Goddard and Kathleen Bragdon, is the primary source of text for the language, containing many (possibly all) surviving texts written by native speakers of the language from the 1660s to the 1750s. The book contains many documents with transcriptions, annotations, and translations. The documents are in large part legal documents, including land transactions and wills, although documents with other purposes are in the collection as well. The book was published by the American Philosophical Society and is copyrighted.

Additionally, a major source for the language is a translation of the Bible written by a non-native speaker (missionary John Eliot). Editions from 1663 and 1685 are available online, although they appear to be in image format without good transcription.

Developed Resources

Keyboard Layouts

Preliminary keyboard layouts for Wôpanâak are available on GitHub.


Basic corpora are available here (still being constructed). The repository is private due to copyrighted sources for the corpora.

Morphological Analyzer

Some morphological processes are documented here.

A preliminary morphological analyzer is under development here. Currently it mainly analyzes nouns. More information can be found at Wôpanâak/Transducer.


A disambiguator is under development at Wôpanâak/Disambiguation.

Khasi and Wôpanâak

A page containing all resources devoted to language pair Khasi and Wôpanâak can be found here: Khasi and Wôpanâak

Contrastive Grammars

Differences in grammar between Khasi and Wôpanâak can be found at Contrastive Grammars

Universal Dependency

A version of a dependency syntax for Wôpanâak is available here.