Waray/Grammar

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Parts of Speech

Nouns

  • estudyante<n> ↔ estudyante ("student")
  • Amerikano<n> ↔ Amerikano ("American")
  • sangkay<n> ↔ sangkay ("friend")
  • lalake<n> ↔ lalake ("man")
  • lalake<n> ↔ lalaki
  • babaye<n> ↔ babaye ("woman")

Personal Nouns

Class I (General)

  • ako<prn><pers><p1><sg><nom> ↔ ako ("I")
  • ikaw<prn><pers><p2><sg><nom> ↔ ikaw ("you")
  • ikaw<prn><pers><p2><sg><nom> ↔ ka ("you")
  • hiya<prn><pers><p3><sg><nom> ↔ hiya ("he/she")
  • kita<prn><pers><p1><incl><pl><nom> ↔ kita ("we (incl)")
  • kami<prn><pers><p1><excl><pl><nom> ↔ kami ("we (excl)")
  • kamo<prn><pers><p2><pl><nom> ↔ kamo ("you")
  • hira<prn><pers><p3><pl><nom> ↔ hira ("they")

Class II (Possessive)

  • ako<prn><pers><p1><sg><pos> ↔ nakon ("my")
  • ako<prn><pers><p1><sg><pos> ↔ ko ("my")
  • ikaw<prn><pers><p2><sg><pos> ↔ nimo ("your")
  • ikaw<prn><pers><p2><sg><pos> ↔ mo ("your")
  • hiya<prn><pers><p3><sg><pos> ↔ niya ("his/her")
  • kita<prn><pers><p1><incl><pl><pos> ↔ naton ("our (incl)")
  • kami<prn><pers><p1><excl><pl><pos> ↔ namon ("our (excl)")
  • kamo<prn><pers><p2><pl><pos> ↔ niyo ("your")
  • hira<prn><pers><p3><pl><pos> ↔ nira ("their")

Class III (Oblique)

  • ako<prn><pers><p1><sg><obl> ↔ akon ("me")
  • ikaw<prn><pers><p2><sg><obl> ↔ imo ("you")
  • hiya<prn><pers><p3><sg><obl> ↔ iya ("him/her")
  • kita<prn><pers><p1><incl><pl><obl> ↔ aton ("us (incl)")
  • kami<prn><pers><p1><excl><pl><obl> ↔ amon ("us (excl)")
  • kamo<prn><pers><p2><pl><obl> ↔ iyo ("you")
  • hira<prn><pers><p3><pl><obl> ↔ ira ("them")

Verbalizing Nouns

Nag

«nag»:

  • tv<v><tv><past> ↔ nag-TV
  • adobo<v><tv><pres> ↔ nagaadobo
  • dyaket<v><tv><past> ↔ nagdyaket

Mag

«mag»:

  • computer<v><tv><futd> ↔ mag-computer
  • kape<v><tv><futd> ↔ magkape
  • guitar<v><tv><futd> ↔ mag-guitar

Pag

«pag»:

  • piano<v><tv><imp> ↔ pag-piano
  • bus<v><tv><imp> ↔ pag-bus

Verbs

«dara» (To Bring) :

  • dara<v><tv><past> ↔ nagdara
  • dara<v><tv><pres> ↔ nagdadara
  • dara<v><tv><futd> ↔ magdara
  • dara<v><tv><imp> ↔ pagdara

«bantay» (To Guard) :

  • bantay<v><tv><past> ↔ nagbantay
  • bantay<v><tv><pres> ↔ nagbabantay
  • bantay<v><tv><futd> ↔ magbantay
  • bantay<v><tv><imp> ↔ pagbantay

«trabaho» (To Work) :

  • trabaho<v><tv><past> ↔ nagtrabaho
  • trabaho<v><tv><pres> ↔ nagtratrabaho
  • trabaho<v><tv><futd> ↔ magtrabaho
  • trabaho<v><tv><imp> ↔ pagtrabaho

«mando» (To Command) :

  • mando<v><tv><past> ↔ nagmando
  • mando<v><tv><pres> ↔ nagmamando
  • mando<v><tv><futd> ↔ magmando
  • mando<v><tv><imp> ↔ pagmando

«aram» (”To Learn”) :

  • aram<v><tv><past> ↔ nagaram
  • aram<v><tv><pres> ↔ nagaaram
  • aram<v><tv><futd> ↔ magaram
  • aram<v><tv><imp> ↔ pagaram

Possessions

  • ni<det><pos> ↔ ni ("of")
  • ni<det><pos><pl> ↔ nira ("of")
  • hi<det><pos> ↔ hi
  • hi<det><pos><pl> ↔ hira
  • han<det><pos> ↔ han ("of")
  • hin<det><pos> ↔ hin ("of")

Demonstrative Pronouns

Demonstrative (The Objects as Topics)
demonstrative meaning
ini this
iton that
adto that over there
Demonstrative (W/Direct Objects)
demonstrative meaning
hini this
hiton that
hadto that over there
Demonstrative (Location)
demonstrative meaning
dinhi this
dida that
didto that over there

Question Markers

  • ba<vaux> ↔ ba

Negatives

  • waray<adv> ↔ waray ("Not or No")
  • diri<adv> ↔ diri ("Not or No")

Beneficiary

  • para<det><nom> ↔ para ("for")
  • ngan<det><pl> ↔ ngan
  • mga<det><pl> ↔ mga
  • kan<det><obl> ↔ kan
  • ha<det><obl> ↔ ha

Actions Completed/In Progress

  • na<adv> ↔ na ("Not now or already")
  • pa<adv> ↔ pa ("Not now or already")
  • ka<adv> ↔ ka ("Not yet")

We got this information from the source "Waray: A Major Language in the Philippines."