Kalmyk and Judeo-Tat/Contrastive Grammar

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Resources for machine translation between Judeo-Tat and Kalmyk

jdt-xal Tests

  • Kalmyk uses the dative(dative-locative) case to mark nouns that indicate location and answer the question "where?". The dative case in Judeo-Tat accomplishes the functions of the dative and the accusative cases in Kalmyk.
  • For the genitive construction ('s/of), Kalmyk uses the genitive marker on the noun. Judeo-Tat has several strategies for doing this, but the most common one seems to be using "э" (of).
  • (jdt) хьэсуьл омори имбуруз э шегьэр шагь Довид → (xal) эндр Давид хаана төрскн хотнд "today in the town of David (meaning is closer to 'town where (King) David was born')"
    (jdt) хьэсуьл<n><sg> омори<v> имбуруз<n><sg> э<abl> шегьэр<n><sg> шагь <n><sg> Довид<np><ant><m> → (xal) эндр<n><sg> Давид<np><ant><m> хаана<n><gen> төрскн<n><sg> хотнд<n><dat>
  • There are two ways to indicate possession in Kalmyk: using a pronoun before the noun, and attaching a possessive suffix to the noun (this example uses the latter method). Judeo-Tat only uses pronouns for possession.
  • Judeo-Tat uses a copula suffix to indicate the meaning "is." There is no such strategy in Kalmyk.
  • (jdt) дусдмере нуми Довид → (xal) нәәҗинм нерн Давид "friend's name is David"
    (jdt) дусдмере<n><p1><sg><dat> нуми<n><cop><p3> Довид<np><ant><m> → (xal) нәәҗинм<n><gen><px1sg> нерн<n><sg> Давид<np><ant><m>
  • Another strategy for genitive construction in Judeo-Tat is adding и to form a compound word. In Kalmyk, the genitive construction is always consistent (attaching the genitive suffix).
  • (jdt) зен эни мерд → (xal) эн күнә гергн "this man's wife"
    (jdt) зен<n><sg> эн<pr><det><dem> мерд<n><sg> → (xal) эн <det><dem> күнә <n><sg><gen> гергн<n><sg>

xal-jdt Tests

  • (xal) эндр Давид хаана төрскн хотнд → (jdt) хьэсуьл омори имбуруз э шегьэр шагь Довид "today in the town of David"
    (xal) эндр<n><sg> Давид<np><ant><m> хаана<n><gen> төрскн<n><sg> хотнд<n><dat> → (jdt) хьэсуьл<n><sg> омори<v> имбуруз<n><sg> э<abl> шегьэр<n><sg> шагь <n><sg> Довид<np><ant><m>
  • (xal) нәәҗинм нерн Давид → (jdt) дусдмере нуми Довид "friend's name is David"
    (xal) нәәҗинм<n><gen><px1sg> нерн<n><sg> Давид<np><ant><m> → (jdt) дусдмере<n><p1><sg><dat> нуми<n><cop><p3> Довид<np><ant><m>
  • (xal) эн күнә гергн → (jdt) зен эни мерд "this man's wife"
    (xal) эн <det><dem> күнә <n><sg><gen> гергн<n><sg><nom> → (jdt) зен<n><sg> эн<pr><det><dem> мерд<n><sg>

Developed Resources

Corpus on GitHub Lexical Transfer on Github